Paper & Ink Examination

A paper with slight surface texture made by pressing the finished paper between cold cylinders. In between rough and hot pressed papers. A physically raised or depressed design in the paper. A super smooth, semi-transparent paper that is often used to make the envelopes that hold stamps Hand made Paper: Paper made by hand in individual sheets. A paper surface that is smooth.

Books & Paper

Dating Documents Documents are occasionally fraudulently backdated to make them appear as though they were issued or signed much earlier. In such cases, the backdating of documents can often be proved by closely inspecting the type of paper, ink, typewriting or printed information that is present on the questioned document.

Figure 1 Figure 1 shows a watermark that appears in sheets of paper from a contested Will. The mill that produced the paper adopted the practice of placing a short vertical bar see arrow beneath a certain letter to denote the year the paper was manufactured. In this instance, the bar beneath the “E” proves the sheet of paper was not available until three years after the date of the Will.

Some documents contain miniscule defects that can be relied on to establish when they were printed.

In a pioneering project funded by the Mellon Foundation, scholars at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich are compiling a database of Arabic documents, many dating from the early years of Islam.

International Finance and Macroeconomics This paper offers a “panoramic” analysis of the history of financial crises dating from England’s fourteenth-century default to the current United States sub-prime financial crisis. Our study is based on a new dataset that spans all regions. It incorporates a number of important credit episodes seldom covered in the literature, including for example, defaults and restructurings in India and China.

As the first paper employing this data, our aim is to illustrate some of the broad insights that can be gleaned from such a sweeping historical database. We find that serial default is a nearly universal phenomenon as countries struggle to transform themselves from emerging markets to advanced economies.

Major default episodes are typically spaced some years or decades apart, creating an illusion that “this time is different” among policymakers and investors. A recent example of the “this time is different” syndrome is the false belief that domestic debt is a novel feature of the modern financial landscape.

We also confirm that crises frequently emanate from the financial centers with transmission through interest rate shocks and commodity price collapses. Thus, the recent US sub-prime financial crisis is hardly unique. Our data also documents other crises that often accompany default:

Justice Dept. Revokes 25 Legal Guidance Documents Dating to 1975

Always Revising Work Documents? You Can Get Rid of the Headache! Our early research shows that the cumbersome job of revising work documents is often a continuing effort of trying to repair flawed wordy instructions. In principle, work documents should only require revision in response to changes in the product or the manufacturing process.

Documents () Letters, revelations, reports of discourses, minutes, etc. Journals (32) Journals and diaries. Administrative Records () Minutes and other official records.

A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus Roman portraiture fresco of a young man with a papyrus scroll , from Herculaneum , 1st century AD Papyrus was first manufactured in Egypt as far back as the fourth millennium BCE. These documents date from c. Codices were an improvement on the papyrus scroll, as the papyrus was not pliable enough to fold without cracking and a long roll, or scroll, was required to create large-volume texts.

Papyrus had the advantage of being relatively cheap and easy to produce, but it was fragile and susceptible to both moisture and excessive dryness. Unless the papyrus was of perfect quality, the writing surface was irregular, and the range of media that could be used was also limited. Papyrus was replaced in Europe by the cheaper, locally produced products parchment and vellum , of significantly higher durability in moist climates, though Henri Pirenne ‘s connection of its disappearance with the Muslim conquest of Egypt is contested.

The latest certain dates for the use of papyrus are for a papal decree typically conservative, all papal bulls were on papyrus until , under Pope Victor II , [8] and for an Arabic document.

ARCHIVED: In Microsoft Word, how do I put a date on my document?

Shop Now Thank you for visiting www. We carry both hand-made papers and machine made mulberry papers including some which are laser or ink jet printer compatible. Take your time browsing our selection and find just the right paper for your project. Learn more about our papers below: Also known as Kozo Paper, these papers are made from the bark of the Mulberry Tree.

The long fibers of the mulberry kozo paper give this paper a soft feel, yet they create a highly durable paper.

1 APA 6th Edition. What is APA? • APA stands for American Psychological Association • a way to document sources used within the paper. What does APA affect?

The reason for the date code is so that Southworth can tell what year the paper was made. Southworth has received numerous calls asking if we can determine when a particular sheet of our paper was made. On approximately half of the calls we receive, we identify that the paper was made after the document states it was written. One of the calls that Southworth received was from Mr.

Dawson wrote the following article explaining first hand how important a date-coded watermark can be. Dating a Document through Watermarks By: Dawson One of the questions a forensic document examiner is asked to solve many times is the age or common origin of two or more sheets of paper. For the average examiner paper analysis alone does not resolve the question. The age or common origin of the document s may be determined through typewriting, printing, handwriting or even ink analysis; however, many times the problem may be quickly solved if a watermark is noted on the documents s.

If there is a date mark on the watermark, the case could move even more quickly. Watermarks frequently establish the authenticity or spuriousness of the questioned document s , the genuineness of which may depend on the date of the watermark or more importantly the date mark on the watermark. The following case history demonstrates how a date mark on a watermark alone can expose a fraudulent document. According to the witness, all pages were executed at the same time. Technically the page 3 signature was not necessary for the Will.

Palestine papers: Browse the documents

For purposes of the discussion and timeline presented here, a paper clip is a flat or nearly flat piece of metal that slides over an edge of a set of papers and holds the papers together without being bent or pinched by the user and without piercing the papers. A large majority of different paper clip models were made by bending single pieces of resilient spring steel wire. Three others were stamped from sheet metal Eureka, Sheet Brass Gothic, Proco and another four Angell, Utility, Vise, Acme Correspondence were made by folding small pieces of resilient sheet steel.

One Nifty was made by bending a wire into a spiral and then flattening it. Recently some paper clips have been made of plastic, but these are not covered here.

Some of the documents that were destroyed date from the s, and it’s understandable that the district was using a paper-based system back then.

The term originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, occasionally, goats. The equivalent material made from calfskin, which was of finer quality, was known as vellum from the Old French velin or vellin, and ultimately from the Latin vitulus, meaning a calf ; [1] while the finest of all was “uterine vellum”, taken from a calf foetus or stillborn calf.

Some authorities have sought to observe these distinctions strictly: In , William Horman wrote in his Vulgaria: Is not parchment made of sheepskins? Ay, my lord, and of calves’ skins too. To-day the distinction, among collectors of manuscripts, is that vellum is a highly refined form of skin, parchment a cruder form, usually thick, harsh, less highly polished than vellum, but with no distinction between skin of calf, or sheep, or of goat.

This account, originating in the writings of Pliny the Elder Natural History , Book XII, 69—70 , is dubious because parchment had been in use in Anatolia and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon. As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment. David Diringer noted that “the first mention of Egyptian documents written on leather goes back to the Fourth Dynasty c.

Ibscher, and preserved in the Cairo Museum ; a roll of the Twelfth Dynasty c. Rabbinic literature traditionally maintains that the institution of employing parchment made of animal hides for the writing of ritual objects such as the Torah , mezuzah , and tefillin is Sinaitic in origin, with special designations for different types of parchment such as gevil and klaf. In the later Middle Ages , especially the 15th century, parchment was largely replaced by paper for most uses except luxury manuscripts, some of which were also on paper.

The White Paper FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

The disc contains pages of images of documents, from and covering German U-boats and pages of English translations of the German language documents. The American force was commanded by Captain Daniel V. Alerted by American cryptanalysts, who, along with the British, had been decrypting the German naval code, the Guadalcanal task group knew U-boats were operating off the African coast near Cape Verde.

They did not know the precise location, however, because the exact coordinates latitude and longitude in the messages were encoded separately before being enciphered for transmission.

A Marriage Separation Agreement outlines how assets, debts and children will be managed during the separation. Depending on your situation, one of the following documents may help you with your separation: Codicil to Will; Create a paper trail of your demands. Divorce Records Request Letter. Get a copy of your divorce records.

The term originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, occasionally, goats. The equivalent material made from calfskin, which was of finer quality, was known as vellum from the Old French velin or vellin, and ultimately from the Latin vitulus, meaning a calf ; [1] while the finest of all was “uterine vellum”, taken from a calf foetus or stillborn calf. Some authorities have sought to observe these distinctions strictly: In , William Horman wrote in his Vulgaria: Is not parchment made of sheepskins?

Ay, my lord, and of calves’ skins too. To-day the distinction, among collectors of manuscripts, is that vellum is a highly refined form of skin, parchment a cruder form, usually thick, harsh, less highly polished than vellum, but with no distinction between skin of calf, or sheep, or of goat. This account, originating in the writings of Pliny the Elder Natural History , Book XII, 69—70 , is dubious because parchment had been in use in Anatolia and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon.

As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment. David Diringer noted that “the first mention of Egyptian documents written on leather goes back to the Fourth Dynasty c. Ibscher, and preserved in the Cairo Museum ; a roll of the Twelfth Dynasty c.

Rabbinic literature traditionally maintains that the institution of employing parchment made of animal hides for the writing of ritual objects such as the Torah , mezuzah , and tefillin is Sinaitic in origin, with special designations for different types of parchment such as gevil and klaf. In the later Middle Ages , especially the 15th century, parchment was largely replaced by paper for most uses except luxury manuscripts, some of which were also on paper.

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Can Internet Dating Be Considered Real Love? Agree-Disagree Paper Can Internet Dating be considered real love? It has the basis of a relationship, but without human contact.

Dating of Documents Dating of Documents Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.

Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type. Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers. The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time.

Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document. Handwriting and signatures may change with time and if reasonable volumes of comparison documentation over a period of time from the same individual can be obtained, the quality of writing or writing style may be identifiable to a particular time period.

The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers caused by writing a document resting on top of a “wet” transferable ink. What We Offer We offer a free of charge: Estimate of likely costs Initial brief discussion of the case with potential instructing solicitors over the telephone Outline of other potential examinations that may be available to extract the maximum evidence from the documents available.

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Understand the different levels of care you can expect from each facility. Detox facilities provide a safe, medicinally aided and monitored program for addressing the physical aspects of addiction. Residential rehabilitation programs provide care in a controlled environment with extra support to help mitigate the risk of relapse during recovery. Partial hospitalization treatment options are most beneficial for those who with a dual diagnosis of a mental health disorder and substance abuse disorder.

Intensive Outpatient Programs of care allow one to get the treatment they need while still maintaining outside responsibilities such as working and attending school.

A bit later do my assignment write my paper on essays against online dating in the english secondary music classroom involves making inferences, and vulnerability .

Born in on a farm near Grass Lake, Michigan, Mr. Osborn was the second of six children. In Grass Lake, he did the usual farm labor and attended the nearby country school. Farm life didn’t appeal to him so he attended the State College at Lansing where he became interested in the art of penmanship. With sufficient training and practice, he felt he could become a teacher of penmanship. In the summer of , he received a letter from the Rochester Business Institute, offering him a position as a teacher of penmanship.

It was from this early beginning as a teacher of handwriting that Mr.

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